Tobacco Reference. Use of Drugs. The consumption or use of illegal drugs. Scenes involving aggressive conflict. May contain bloodless dismemberment. Animated Blood. Blood and Gore. Depictions of blood or the mutilation of body parts. Comic Mischief. Depictions or dialogue involving slapstick or suggestive humor.
Drug Reference. Intense Violence. Graphic and realistic-looking depictions of physical conflict. Mild references to profanity, sexuality, violence, alcohol or drug use in music. Graphic or prolonged depictions of nudity. Real Gambling. Player can gamble, including betting or wagering real cash or currency.
Sexual Themes. Simulated Gambling. Player can gamble without betting or wagering real cash or currency. Strong Lyrics. Suggestive Themes. Mild provocative references or materials. Use of Alcohol. The consumption of alcoholic beverages. Use of Tobacco. The consumption of tobacco products. Violent References. Alcohol Reference. View All. View Less. Interactive Elements Interactive Elements highlight interactive or online features that may be of interest or concern but do not influence the rating assignment of a product.
In-Game Purchases. Provides unrestricted access to the internet e. There are arrangements eg insurance to make sure that the money in separate accounts is given to customers if the company goes bust. This account is controlled by an independent person or external auditor.
The larger the amount of money which you hold with a gambling company, the more thought you should give to how that company protects it. You may wish to choose which company you use by how much protection they offer or spread your money across more than one company.
Levels of protection Gambling businesses must state if your money is not protected, has medium protection or high protection. Not protected No extra protection. Medium protection There are arrangements eg insurance to make sure that the money in separate accounts is given to customers if the company goes bust.
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Click link below that reads, "Enjoy this page? Please pay it forward. Here's how Part 2 of this series continues the glossary of casino terminology. The casino terms published here will educate both newbies and veteran players alike. New players can impress their game-playing friends, while veterans are sure to find some distinctive casino gamerisms where they can exclaim, I did not know that!
Casino players are about to learn about casino jargon often heard at the tables, slots and sports books. Most of these casino terms have a long history and will surely add a unique quality to your next casino experience.
These are general casino terms only. For players who want to explore their favorite games, there are 8 other casino gamerisms units at this site. They are blackjack, poker, slots, video poker, roulette, craps, bingo and sportsbetting. Each of the glossaries presents casino terms, rules, graphics and an introduction to include strategy tips. Links for these casino money games are provided below. Be sure to check out our page on how to find the best casinos online to win money. A full service casino will also offer sportsbetting and bingo.
Either way, casino players can count on plenty of action. Aggregate Winnings : terms for total winnings. All or Nothing: refers to a Keno ticket where the payout occurs only when all picked numbers are drawn or alternatively, none of the picked numbers are revealed. Automat Club or Videomat Casino : encompasses a gambling venue like an arcade, bingo hall or slot hall that provides automatic games where there is not a necessity for a casino operator.
Examples: slot video machines or horseracing. Bankroll: term for total funds available to support betting action. Bet: term for a wager on a casino game. Betting Limits: set by the casino, the minimum and maximum monies that players can bet. Bug : slang for the Joker card.
Buy-in: monies converted to casino chips before playing casino games. Cage: refers to the location of the friendly casino cashiers. Capping : cheating at the tables by placing additional chips on top of the original bet once the game round has begun. Card Sharp: expert card player, found at the money games like poker, blackjack and baccarat. Carpet Joints : casino terms referring to 5 star luxury casinos. May you visit often.
Casino: origin of the word refers to a public music and dance hall. Casino Advantage: casino or house edge when playing the games, usually reported as a percentage. Example: the casino advantage for double-zero roulette is 5. Chase: after losing, casino players will attempt to get back monies with additional bets. Cheques: the historical, correct term used in reference to playing chips. Chips : round discs with designated currency denominations and colors that are played instead of real money.
Obvious tip here--they are real money! Chip Tray: holds the chips stock placed nearby the dealer—another case of real money. Cold: term for a player, craps table or slot machine that is no longer on a winning streak. Coloring Up: when you take those five-dollar chips and exchange for larger denominations, possibly hundred-dollar chips, then you are coloring-up.
Comp: as in freebie or points, these are the dining, beverage, hotel rooms and benefits received by casino players based on their wagering and time played. See listing of US Mega club cards for several properties under letter U in this casino terms glossary. Cracking the Nut: casino lingo for a net profit after all gambling expenses deducted. Credits : 1 credit is equal to 1 cash unit. Then was the formation of empires, which resulted in the next stage of integration of the world language system.
Firstly, Latin emerged from Rome. Under the rule of the Roman Empire , which ruled an extensive group of states, the usage of Latin stretched along the Mediterranean coast, the southern half of Europe, and more sparsely to the North and then into the Germanic and Celtic lands. Thirdly, Sanskrit started to become widely spoken in South Asia from the widespread teaching of Hinduism and Buddhism in South Asian countries.
Fourthly, the expansion of the Arabic empire also led to the increased usage of Arabic as a language in the Afro-Eurasian land mass. Military conquests of preceding centuries generally determine the distribution of languages today. Supercentral languages spread by land and sea.
Languages like Bengali , Tamil , Italian and Turkish too are less considered as land-bound languages. However, when the conquerors were defeated and were forced to move out of the territory, the spread of the languages receded. As a result, some of these languages are currently barely supercentral languages and are instead confined to their remaining state territories, as is evident from German, Russian and Japanese.
On the other hand, sea-bound languages spread by conquests overseas: English , French , Portuguese , Spanish. Consequently, these languages became widespread in areas settled by European colonisers and relegated the indigenous people and their languages to peripheral positions. Besides, the world-systems theory also allowed the global language system to expand further. It focuses on the existence of the core, semi-peripheral and peripheral nations.
The core countries are the most economically powerful and the wealthiest countries. Besides, they also have a strong governmental system in the country, which oversees the bureaucracies in the governmental departments. There is also the prevalent existence of the bourgeois , and core nations have significant influence over the non-core, smaller nations.
Historically, the core countries were found in northwestern Europe and include countries such as England, France and the Netherlands. They were the dominant countries that had colonized many other nations from the early 15th century to the early 19th century. Then is the existence of the periphery countries , the countries with the slowest economic growth. They also have relatively weak governments and a poor social structure and often depend on primary industries as the main source of economic activity for the country.
The extracting and exporting of raw materials from the peripheral nations to core nations is the activity bringing about the most economic benefits to the country. Much of the population that is poor and uneducated, and the countries are also extensively influenced by core nations and the multinational corporations found there. Historically, peripheral nations were found outside Europe, the continent of colonial masters.
Many countries in Latin America were peripheral nations during the period of colonization, and today peripheral countries are in sub-Saharan Africa. Lastly, the presence of the semiperiphery countries , those in between the core and the periphery. They tend to be those which started out as peripheral nations and are currently moving towards industrialization and the development of more diversified labour markets and economies.
They can as well come about from declining core countries. They are not dominant players in the international trade market. As compared to the peripheral nations, semi-peripheries are not as susceptible to manipulation by the core countries. However, most of these nations have economic or political relations with the core.
Semi-peripheries also tend to exert influence and control over peripheries and can serve to be a buffer between the core and peripheral nations and ease political tensions. Historically, Spain and Portugal were semi-peripheral nations after they fell from their dominant core positions. As they still maintained a certain level of influence and dominance in Latin America over their colonies, they could still maintain their semi-peripheral position.
According to Immanuel Wallerstein , one of the most well-known theorists who developed the world-systems approach, a core nation is dominant over the non-core nations from its economic and trade dominance. The abundance of cheap and unskilled labour in the peripheral nations makes many large multinational corporations MNCs , from core countries, often outsource their production to the peripheral countries to cut costs, by employing cheap labour. Hence, the languages from the core countries could penetrate into the peripheries from the setting up of the foreign MNCs in the peripheries.
A significant percentage of the population living in the core countries had also migrated to the core countries in search of jobs with higher wages. The gradual expansion of the population of migrants makes the language used in their home countries be brought into the core countries, thus allowing for further integration and expansion of the world language system. The semi-peripheries also maintain economic and financial trade with the peripheries and core countries.
That allows for the penetration of languages used in the semi-peripheries into the core and peripheral nations, with the flow of migrants moving out of the semi-peripheral nations to the core and periphery for trade purposes. Thus, the global language system examines rivalries and accommodations using a global perspective and establishes that the linguistic dimension of the world system goes hand in hand with the political, economic, cultural and ecological aspects.
Specifically, the present global constellation of languages is the product of prior conquest and domination and of ongoing relations of power and exchange. It is defined as follows:. Consequently, a peripheral language has a low Q-value and the Q-values increase along the sociology classification of languages, with the Q-value of the hypercentral language being the highest. De Swaan has been calculating the Q-values of the official European Union EU languages since to explain the acquisition of languages by EU citizens in different phases.
In , when there were only four language constellations, Q-value decreased in the order of French, German, Italian, Dutch. English had the highest Q-value followed by French and German. In the following years, the European Commission grew, with the addition of countries like Austria, Finland and Sweden.
Q-value of English still remained the highest, but French and German swapped places. De Swaan likens the global language system to contemporary political macrosociology and states that language constellations are a social phenomenon, which can be understood by using social science theories. In his theory, de Swaan uses the Political Sociology of Language and Political Economy of Language to explain the rivalry and accommodation between language groups.
This theoretical perspective centres on the interconnections among the state, nation and citizenship. Accordingly, bilingual elite groups try to take control of the opportunities for mediation between the monolingual group and the state. Subsequently, they use the official language to dominate the sectors of government and administration and the higher levels of employment.
It assumes that both the established and outsider groups are able to communicate in a shared vernacular, but the latter groups lack the literacy skills that could allow them to learn the written form of the central or supercentral language, which would, in turn allow, them to move up the social ladder. This perspective centres on the inclinations that people have towards learning one language over the other.
The presumption is that if given a chance, people will learn the language that gives them more communication advantage. In other words, a higher Q-Value. Certain languages such as English or Chinese have high Q-values since they are spoken in many countries across the globe and would thus be more economically useful than to less spoken languages, such as Romanian or Hungarian.
Thus, the more speakers a language has, the higher its communication value for each speaker. The hypercollective nature and Q-Value of languages thus help to explain the dilemma that a speaker of a peripheral language faces when deciding whether to learn the central or hypercentral language. The hypercollective nature and Q-value also help to explain the accelerating spread and abandonment of various languages. In that sense, when people feel that a language is gaining new speakers, they would assign a greater Q-value to this language and abandon their own native language in place of a more central language.
The hypercollective nature and Q-value also explain, in an economic sense, the ethnic and cultural movements for language conservation. Specifically, a minimal Q-value of a language is guaranteed when there is a critical mass of speakers committed to protecting it, thus preventing the language from being forsaken. The global language system theorises that language groups are engaged in unequal competition on different levels globally.
Using the notions of a periphery, semi-periphery and a core, which are concepts of the world system theory , de Swaan relates them to the four levels present in the hierarchy of the global language system: peripheral, central, supercentral and hypercentral.
De Swaan also argues that the greater the range of potential uses and users of a language, the higher the tendency of an individual to move up the hierarchy in the global language system and learn a more "central" language.