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Cornero deliberately and dramatically portrayed the Rex as free of the often rumored rigged games. Despite efforts to frustrate public interest in the new gambling ship, the Rex was a success from the beginning. It operated 24 hours per day with normally between 1, to 3, gamblers aboard at any one time. A crowd at the Santa Monica Pier boards the ferry Irene for one of the gambling barges.
It did not take long for anti-gambling ship forces to take notice. After a brief standoff, Cornero submitted to arrest so as to challenge the issue in court. Fitts argued that Santa Monica Bay constituted an "inland" body of water and therefore, the coastline was not the true coastline of the State of California.
For a true state coastline, one had to draw an imaginary line between Point Vicente and Point Dume. Consequently, the Rex would have been required to anchor itself many miles out to sea, a proposition that would have required an inconvenient and unattractive seafaring trip to visit the ship. Cornero, for his part, countered that Santa Monica Bay was not in fact a bay.
It was a bight , a large coastal indentation. Although the court sided with the District Attorney, it was overturned upon appeal. Cornero returned to operating the Rex. In , State Attorney General Earl Warren proposed a new legal argument against offshore gambling ships. He called them "a great nuisance" because they drew millions of dollars from legitimate purposes and would inevitably lead to the appearance of floating narcotics dens and houses of prostitution.
He reasoned that states had the power to abate a nuisance even if it lies outside state jurisdiction. Many American history buffs remember the romance attached to the riverboat gambler of the nineteenth century. It was not a change in public morality that caused the demise of the riverboat. The emergence of the railroads as a better transportation medium and the outbreak of the Civil War were the precipitating factors. Trains were more reliable and were faster than the riverboats.
The War Between the States interrupted virtually all river travel and abruptly diminished gambling in that area. The last decades of the twentieth century found states looking for new revenue sources that would be appealing to voters. Many states began allowing riverboats to offer casino gambling. Many of these boats are really stationary barges that never leave the dock.
They are moored on a river, lake or ocean permanently. States sold casino gambling to their voters by limiting the gambling to riverboats. The rationale for this was not only the physical restrictions but also the time limitation. Gamblers with a set time of two or three hours might not lose as much as if the time were unrestricted.
At first, these riverboats would "sail" down a river or around a lake or bay. As time has passed, more and more of them never leave the dock. In addition, because of competition amongst neighboring states, many riverboat cruises no longer limit the time per "gambling excursion". This competition has also caused many states to significantly raise the gambling limits that were set when the riverboat gaming parlors were first established in the 's and 's.
Native American tribes have also gotten on the casino bandwagon. They are allowed to set up gambling casinos because of their sovereign nation status. Native American tribes existed as sovereign governments long before European settlers first arrived in North America. The tribal nations signed treaties with European nations and later the United States in exchange for land. These treaties guaranteed the tribes continued recognition and treatment as sovereigns. Modern riverboat casinos were first legalized in in Iowa, then Illinois followed closely by Missouri, Indiana, Louisiana, and Mississippi.
The type of gaming allowed on riverboat casinos varies by jurisdiction. Generally, the states allow the playing of traditional casino games such as blackjack, roulette, and slots.
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