Take for example the range of Konami designed and supplied slot machines that are found in very large numbers on many Vegas casino gaming floors. You will often come across such slots that have jackpots that are guaranteed to be hit before they reach a certain value.
Therefore all that you will need to do is allocate some time to go wandering around several different casino gaming floors and locate and then start to play the slots which have jackpots not far from their guaranteed hit by amounts. Many players will be playing such slots which are not far off their guaranteed hit by amounts, but will run out of money before they hit and will have to leave them, and that is when you should be ready to strike and jump on those slot machines, for if the jackpot is very close to its hit by amount and you have enough cash to play that slot then there is a very good chance that jackpot will be won soon by you.
Some slot machines have progressive jackpots that are won via some randomly awarded bonus game or bonus feature, and when you fancy playing such slots then be on the lookout for the ones that have jackpots higher than other similar slots, as an overdue jackpot is much more likely to be awarded to you than a low valued jackpot and a jackpot that has recently be won by another player! However, never set about chasing a progressive jackpot, for you could end up spending a small fortune trying to win a jackpot but never win one, or you could win one which is valued at less than the amount you spent trying to win it!
Primary Menu. The first thing you need to consider is what your goal is at the casino. Are you there to have hours of fun or for the most entertaining time possible? Or is your main goal to try to win as much cash as possible? Start by deciding how much money you can afford to lose at a casino. Of course, no one likes to lose any money at all, but you can consider it the cost of your entertainment.
Once you decide how much you are willing to lose, think about how long you plan to stay at the casino and divide your bankroll by the number of hours in your stay. Set a timer and, if you run out of money early, take a break until the hour is up. You can also consider whether you might want to play a less-expensive machine. Many people have won a respectable amount at the slot machines, but lost it all again before they left the casino.
Some people choose to bank all of the money they win. Others will set a win limit, like double their bankroll, and stop playing when they reach it. Or you can take a middle road that will protect your winnings while still extending your bankroll by banking half of your wins and playing the other half. If you are not going to a specific casino but rather to a place like Las Vegas, where many casinos compete for your attention, take a moment to research which of your options offer the best odds.
Many casinos publish their slot odds, guaranteeing a or percent payout rate. You can choose to play at the casino with the best odds. Remember, however, that those published odds are for all slot machines that the casino offers.
Payout rates for specific machines are not published. Many casinos compete with one another for players by offering benefits and rewards. Make sure that you take advantage of these rewards. For example, some attract customers by offering a no-deposit bonus, where you can play for free and keep the winnings. Others have a deposit bonus, where they will match whatever amount of money you convert into chips.
Some casinos offer slot cards. They use these cards to track how much you play and extend special offers to you. The offers might include cash back, free meals and drinks, and more. The cards cost you nothing and the rewards can be valuable. Take advantage of any promotions available to you to extend your profits at the casinos.
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That magical total keeps on rising until a lucky punter comes along and hits the jackpot, scooping the lot. With these slots grouped together, more people get to play on them, so the progressive jackpots rise faster and higher. In , in the Excalibur casino in Las Vegas, an L. He can now afford a beachside mansion. However, we are all a fickle bunch, and we like to think that if the jackpot is larger, it must be about to hit soon, right?
That logic is flawed, of course. However, there is some sense in avoiding the progressive slots where the jackpot is currently low. Another tip is game selection. Some progressive slot machines seem to have a better jackpot record than offers. But if I were to single out a slot to play, it would be Mega Moolah, which has produced many a millionaire.
Finally, if you can find one, go for a standalone progressive slot game, where the jackpot is lower and won more often. That would get a little costly. Further, someone has to pay for those jackpots when they do hit, and that someone is you. Well, all of us really. My prior view was incomplete, and not entirely proven out by real data.
In fact, the opposite is clearly true for at least one state, and therefore reasonably true for all states. But, there is also some truth to what I had previously believed. I had previously believed that all progressive slot machines had low payout returns. This is partially still true, but only for progressive slot machines with a truly massive wide-area network of machines.
These are the progressive games having a multi-million dollar progressive jackpot. But, the refinement to my previous understanding relates to the consistently relatively high actual payout returns for progressive slot machines with relatively small networks and therefore non-huge progressive jackpots.
These are simply the facts. These available facts are from, naturally, publicly available payout return statistics from a U. The Mississippi Gaming Commission separates out monthly payout returns by slot machine denominations. However, what is special about the Mississippi Gaming Commission monthly Win Percentage Report is, not only do they separate out payout returns by slot machine denomination, they also separate them out by whether or not the slot machine is progressive. This is shown in the January report for all denominations having progressive slot machines, separately shown across all 3 gaming regions of Mississippi.
Let me repeat that. In Mississippi, all actual payout returns within all three regions as well as all denomination for progressive slots are higher than non-progressive slots. Given this single state-wide example, I am now willing to revise my previously low opinion of progressive slot machines. I now say it is reasonable to assume all progressive machines have better payout returns than non-progressive slot machines.
As I have previously discussed, improved payout returns come from several sources, and starting with the highest baseline amount is accomplished by careful selection of both casino and slot machine. A progressive slot machine should be considered to have a relatively higher payout return relative to slot machines of the same denomination. Just, remember to avoid progressive slot machines with truly large, even life-changing, progressive jackpots.
Those typically have the lowest odds of winning. Now, let us consider a strategy specific for winning on progressive slot machines, rather than just if they should be played at all. In general, winning the maximum jackpot on a slot machine is a truly rare event. Unless a specific strategy is being employed, a slots player should more-or-less ignore this possibility as nothing other than a once-in-a-lifetime event.
This is the key to winning the progressive jackpot on a progressive slot machine: Play it when it approaches the maximum progressive jackpot allowed, when it must pay out. Advantage players makes sure they are playing a progressive slot machine as it approaches the set maximum limit, pushing it towards and over to win. Simply look at the progressive jackpot amounts on progressive slot machines at your casino.
How much do they never go under? How much do they never go over? Those are the initial and maximum progressive jackpot amounts, respectively. You can observe progressive slot machines yourself, and should if you want to make the most of this strategy.
What you want to watch for is someone winning a progressive jackpot on what I describe elsewhere as a candidate slot machine. This initial jackpot provides a useful clue to the maximum progressive jackpot. Further observations of players winning progressive jackpots on your candidate slot machines will also help you determine how large the maximum progressive jackpot might be.
Once you do have that reasonable guess, only play that progressive slot machine when it is closest to its best-guess maximum jackpot and furthest from the initial jackpot. This strategy can also be applied to non-stand-alone progressive slot machines. However, doing so will require a team of 2 or more people. Networked progressive slot machines located within a casino are currently being grouped together by casinos, as discussed, so having someone at each is quite possible. The strategy here is to have someone sitting at each of these networked slot machines when the maximum progressive jackpot is being approached, then play those machines until the progressive jackpot is driven over the maximum jackpot.
There are a couple of logistics concerns to watch out for, of course. First, these should be people you both trust and have an agreement with to share the jackpot. In other words, whose name will be on the W-2G? Second, you could just have a single person playing one of the networked slot machines, while everyone else at the other machines are not playing.
But, this will look suspicious to the casino, and should be avoided, given the lengthy time it will take for one person to add enough money to sufficiently drive up the progressive jackpot. Third, the highest value progressive jackpots are on the greatest number of networked progressive slot machines. Given the inherent difficulties, such as large cash investment and team management as well as travel costs, it is perhaps more reasonable to try this strategy on a smaller bank of networked progressive slot machines.
However, this may require visiting the casino at odd hours when attendance is at a minimum. Even then, a stranger could still swoop in at near the last moment to potentially win and take your investment of time and money. Either way, it is something to watch for, or plan to implement or avoid, with this strategy. I was initially impressed, perhaps because of the fervor with which he told the story.
But then, I got to thinking about the math. As a reminder for both of us, an upcoming post will be about how to and the value of keeping good gambling records. Of course, this does not include any income taxes on his progressive jackpot. How much profit, annual revenue minus annual gambling losses, had he actually gotten? One hopes that he at least broke even after 15 years of effort.
In summary, Winning Strategy 2: Progressive Slot Machines provides the necessary background understanding to subsequently apply the provided realistic strategy for winning on progressive slots. I first identified what a progressive slot machine is, then helped you to identify networked progressive slot machines. This was followed by the usual question always to be asked about slot machines, which was to identify what is known about actual payout returns for this type of slot machine. Book Your Consultation….
I next went over the strategy for winning at progressive slot machines, making use of the advantage play available due to progressive slots having a minimum jackpot at reset as well as maximum progressive jackpot which it cannot exceed. I also talked about how to best go about teaming up to apply this strategy on small networks of progressive slot machines.
I concluded with a cautionary tale about winning a big progressive jackpot after many years of attempting to do so, and how the annual cost may well exceed, in total, what might eventually be won with a single large jackpot. Have fun, be safe, and make good choices! By Jon H. Friedl, Jr. Winning Strategy 2: Progressive Slot Machines. As featured on:. We assume that you are happy to receive all the cookies that your browser settings allow.
After many years of huge success as a land based slot across the UK, the Rainbow Riches Slot is finally available to play online, via your pc or mobile device. Do you have the luck of the Irish? By far the most popular slot since the original is 'Pots Of Gold', this game holds all the original wins, sounds and features from the original but has the infamous progressive pots.
All versions of Rainbow Riches are now available to play online. We'll show you where to find them and even how to get great free bonuses to win some real cash! Back to the classic There are 3 unique bonus features on the rainbow riches slot which include:. If you wish to collect the coins showing on the meter, hit the button marked "Cash Out," and on most machines, a bar-coded ticket will be printed out that can be redeemed for cash.
In a few older machines, coins still drop into a tray. Many slot players pump money into two or more adjacent machines at a time, but if the casino is crowded and others are having difficulty finding places to play, limit yourself to one machine. As a practical matter, even in a light crowd, it's wise not to play more machines than you can watch over easily.
Play too many and you could find yourself in the situation faced by the woman who was working up and down a row of six slots. She was dropping coins into machine number six while number one, on the aisle, was paying a jackpot. There was nothing she could do as a passerby scooped a handful of coins out of the first tray.
Sometimes players taking a break for the rest room will tip a chair against the machine, leave a coat on the chair, or leave some other sign that they'll be back. Take heed of these signs. A nasty confrontation could follow if you play a machine that has already been thus staked out. Payout percentages have risen since the casinos figured out it's more profitable to hold 5 percent of a dollar than 8 percent of a quarter or 10 percent of a nickel.
In most of the country, slot players can figure on about a 93 percent payout percentage, though payouts in Nevada run higher. Las Vegas casinos usually offer the highest average payouts of all -- better than 95 percent. Keep in mind that these are long-term averages that will hold up over a sample of , to , pulls. In the short term, anything can happen. It's not unusual to go 20 or 50 or more pulls without a single payout on a reel-spinning slot, though payouts are more frequent on video slots.
Nor is it unusual for a machine to pay back percent or more for several dozen pulls. But in the long run, the programmed percentages will hold up. The change in slots has come in the computer age, with the development of the microprocessor. Earlier slot machines were mechanical, and if you knew the number of stops -- symbols or blank spaces that could stop on the payout line--on each reel, you could calculate the odds on hitting the top jackpot.
If a machine had three reels, each with ten stops, and one symbol on each reel was for the jackpot, then three jackpot symbols would line up, on the average, once every pulls, or 1, pulls. On systems that electronically link machines in several casinos, progressive jackpots reach millions of dollars.
The microprocessors driving today's machines are programmed with random-number generators that govern winning combinations. It no longer matters how many stops are on each reel. If we fitted that old three-reel, ten-stop machine with a microprocessor, we could put ten jackpot symbols on the first reel, ten on the second, and nine on the third, and still program the random-number generator so that three jackpot symbols lined up only once every 1, times, or 10, times.
And on video slots, reel strips can be programmed to be as long as needed to make the odds of the game hit at a desired percentage. They are not constrained by a physical reel. Each possible combination is assigned a number, or numbers. When the random-number generator receives a signal -- anything from a coin being dropped in to the handle being pulled -- it sets a number, and the reels stop on the corresponding combination. Between signals, the random-number generator operates continuously, running through dozens of numbers per second.
This has two practical effects for slot players. First, if you leave a machine, then see someone else hit a jackpot shortly thereafter, don't fret. To hit the same jackpot, you would have needed the same split-second timing as the winner. The odds are overwhelming that if you had stayed at the machine, you would not have hit the same combination.
Second, because the combinations are random, or as close to random as is possible to set the program, the odds of hitting any particular combination are the same on every pull. If a machine is programmed to pay out its top jackpot, on the average, once every 10, pulls, your chances of hitting it are one in 10, on any given pull.
If you've been standing there for days and have played 10, times, the odds on the next pull will still be one in 10, Those odds are long-term averages. In the short term, the machine could go , pulls without letting loose of the big one, or it could pay it out twice in a row. So, is there a way to ensure that you hit it big on a slot machine? Not really, but despite the overriding elements of chance, there are some strategies you can employ. We'll cover these in the next section.
Because most players do not understand how slot machines work, whole sets of beliefs have grown over when to play a machine and when to avoid it. Little truth is in any of them. Here's a look at some of the more pervasive slot myths:. Change machines after a big jackpot -- the machine won't be due to hit again for some time. From a money-management standpoint, it makes sense to lock up the profits from a big hit and move on. But the machine is not "due" to turn cold. In fact, the odds against the same jackpot hitting on the next pull are the same as they were the first time.
Play a machine that has gone a long time without paying off -- it is due to hit. Slot machines are never "due. Casinos place "hot" machines on the aisles. This belief is so widespread that end machines get a good deal of play regardless of how they pay. It is true that not all machines in the same casino are programmed with the same payback percentage. And it's true that casinos want other customers to see winners. But slot placement is more complex than just placing the hot ones at the ends of aisles.
The payback percentage is lowered when the crowds are bigger and demand is greater. It's not that easy to change a machine's programming. Changing the programmed payback percentage requires opening the machine and replacing a computer chip. That's not something to do cavalierly. Slots are the easiest games in the casino to play -- spin the reels and take your chances.
Players have no control over what combinations will show up or when a jackpot will hit. There is no way to tell when a machine will be hot or cold. Still, there are some pitfalls. It's important to read the glass and learn what type of machine it is. The three major types of reel-spinning slots are the multiplier, the buy-a-pay, and the progressive.
The multiplier. On a multiplier, payoffs are proportionate for each coin played--except, usually, for the top jackpot. If the machine accepts up to three coins at a time, and if you play one coin, three bars pay back ten. Three bars will pay back 20 for two coins and 30 for three coins. However, three sevens might pay for one coin and 1, for two, but jump to 10, when all three coins are played.
Read the glass to find out if that's the case before playing less than the maximum coins on this type of machine. The buy-a-pay. Never play less than the maximum on a buy-a-pay, on which each coin "buys" a set of symbols or a payout line. The first coin in might allow the player to win only on cherry combination, while the second coin activates the bar payouts, and the third coin activates the sevens. Woe is the player who hits three jackpot symbols on a buy-a-pay with only one coin played--the player gets nothing back.
A variation is the machine with multiple payout lines, each activated by a separate coin. All symbols are active with each coin, but if a winning combination lines up on the third-coin payout line with only one or two coins played, the payoff is zero. The progressive. You also have no reason to play less than maximum coins on a progressive machine. A player who eventually lines up the jackpot symbols gets a percentage of each coin played. The first progressive machines were self-contained--the jackpot was determined by how much that particular machine had been played since the last big hit.
Today most progressives are linked electronically to other machines, with all coins played in the linked machines adding to a common jackpot. The tradeoff is that frequency and size of other payouts are usually smaller.
And you can't win the big jackpot without playing maximum coins. If you must play fewer than maximum coins, look for a multiplier in which the final-coin jump in the top jackpot is fairly small. Better yet, choose a machine that allows you to stay within your budget while playing maximum coins.
Depending on the machine, the lights on top of the machine may come on and start flashing, music may play or bells ring. A slot attendant arrives promptly to see what you have won. In the case of a large or progressive jackpot, the casino may have technicians come and check the machine to certify that it was functioning properly when the jackpot hit. If you hit one of the wide-area progressive machines such as MegaBucks, the slot company that operates the game comes out and verifies that machine before giving you a check.
When you hit a jackpot, you have the option of taking your winnings in cash or check. Usually, large amounts are paid by check. In the case of the MegaBucks or similar multi-million dollar jackpots, you receive a check for the partial amount, and then you have 90 days to decide if you want to be paid a lump sum or an annual annuity on the balance. If you select the lump sum option, you receive only a percentage of your actual winnings.
For example, the full winnings of one multi-million slot jackpot is paid in 25 annual installments, or you can take a lump sum of 60 percent of the winnings. All casino winnings are subject to federal taxes. This form lists your name, address and Social Security number. You can request a specific amount of withholding tax to be taken out of any jackpot you win. Unused coin hoppers can still be found even on games that exclusively employ Ticket-In, Ticket-Out technology, as a vestige.
The credit meter is a display of the amount of money or number of credits on the machine. On mechanical slot machines, this is usually a seven-segment display , but video slot machines typically use stylized text that suits the game's theme and user interface. The drop bucket or drop box is a container located in a slot machine's base where excess coins are diverted from the hopper.
Typically, a drop bucket is used for low-denomination slot machines and a drop box is used for high-denomination slot machines. A drop box contains a hinged lid with one or more locks whereas a drop bucket does not contain a lid. The contents of drop buckets and drop boxes are collected and counted by the casino on a scheduled basis.
Free spins are a common form of bonus, where a series of spins are automatically played at no charge at the player's current wager. Free spins are usually triggered via a scatter of at least three designated symbols with the number of spins dependent on the number of symbols that land. Some games allow the free spins bonus to "retrigger", which adds additional spins on top of those already awarded.
There is no theoretical limit to the number of free spins obtainable. Some games may have other features that can also trigger over the course of free spins. A hand pay refers to a payout made by an attendant or at an exchange point "cage" , rather than by the slot machine itself. A hand pay occurs when the amount of the payout exceeds the maximum amount that was preset by the slot machine's operator.
Usually, the maximum amount is set at the level where the operator must begin to deduct taxes. A hand pay could also be necessary as a result of a short pay. Hopper fill slip is a document used to record the replenishment of the coin in the coin hopper after it becomes depleted as a result of making payouts to players. The slip indicates the amount of coin placed into the hoppers, as well as the signatures of the employees involved in the transaction, the slot machine number and the location and the date.
MEAL book M achine e ntry a uthorization l og is a log of the employee's entries into the machine. Low-level or slant-top slot machines include a stool so the player may sit down. Stand-up or upright slot machines are played while standing. Optimal play is a payback percentage based on a gambler using the optimal strategy in a skill-based slot machine game.
Payline is a line that crosses through one symbol on each reel, along which a winning combination is evaluated. Classic spinning reel machines usually have up to nine paylines, while video slot machines may have as many as one hundred. Paylines could be of various shapes horizontal, vertical, oblique, triangular, zigzag, etc. Persistent state refers to passive features on some slot machines, some of which able to trigger bonus payouts or other special features if certain conditions are met over time by players on that machine.
Roll-up is the process of dramatizing a win by playing sounds while the meters count up to the amount that has been won. Short pay refers to a partial payout made by a slot machine, which is less than the amount due to the player. This occurs if the coin hopper has been depleted as a result of making earlier payouts to players. The remaining amount due to the player is either paid as a hand pay or an attendant will come and refill the machine.
A scatter is a pay combination based on occurrences of a designated symbol landing anywhere on the reels, rather than falling in sequence on the same payline. A scatter pay usually requires a minimum of three symbols to land, and the machine may offer increased prizes or jackpots depending on the number that land. Scatters are frequently used to trigger bonus games, such as free spins with the number of spins multiplying based on the number of scatter symbols that land.
The scatter symbol usually cannot be matched using wilds, and some games may require the scatter symbols to appear on consecutive reels in order to pay. On some multiway games, scatter symbols still pay in unused areas. Taste is a reference to the small amount often paid out to keep a player seated and continuously betting.
Only rarely will machines fail to pay even the minimum out over the course of several pulls. Tilt is a term derived from electromechanical slot machines' " tilt switches ", which would make or break a circuit when they were tilted or otherwise tampered with that triggered an alarm. While modern machines no longer have tilt switches, any kind of technical fault door switch in the wrong state, reel motor failure, out of paper, etc. A theoretical hold worksheet is a document provided by the manufacturer for every slot machine that indicates the theoretical percentage the machine should hold based on the amount paid in.
The worksheet also indicates the reel strip settings, number of coins that may be played, the payout schedule, the number of reels and other information descriptive of the particular type of slot machine. Volatility or variance refers to the measure of risk associated with playing a slot machine. A low-volatility slot machine has regular but smaller wins, while a high-variance slot machine has fewer but bigger wins. Weight count is an American term referring to the total value of coins or tokens removed from a slot machine's drop bucket or drop box for counting by the casino's hard count team through the use of a weigh scale.
Wild symbols substitute for most other symbols in the game similarly to a joker card , usually excluding scatter and jackpot symbols or offering a lower prize on non-natural combinations that include wilds. How jokers behave are dependent on the specific game and whether the player is in a bonus or free games mode.
Sometimes wild symbols may only appear on certain reels, or have a chance to "stack" across the entire reel. Each machine has a table that lists the number of credits the player will receive if the symbols listed on the pay table line up on the pay line of the machine. Some symbols are wild and can represent many, or all, of the other symbols to complete a winning line. Especially on older machines, the pay table is listed on the face of the machine, usually above and below the area containing the wheels.
On video slot machines, they are usually contained within a help menu, along with information on other features. Historically, all slot machines used revolving mechanical reels to display and determine results. Although the original slot machine used five reels, simpler, and therefore more reliable, three reel machines quickly became the standard. This limited the manufacturer's ability to offer large jackpots since even the rarest event had a likelihood of 0.
Although the number of symbols eventually increased to about 22, allowing 10, combinations,  this still limited jackpot sizes as well as the number of possible outcomes. In the s, however, slot machine manufacturers incorporated electronics into their products and programmed them to weight particular symbols. Thus the odds of losing symbols appearing on the payline became disproportionate to their actual frequency on the physical reel.
A symbol would only appear once on the reel displayed to the player, but could, in fact, occupy several stops on the multiple reel. In Inge Telnaes received a patent for a device titled, "Electronic Gaming Device Utilizing a Random Number Generator for Selecting the Reel Stop Positions" US Patent ,  which states: "It is important to make a machine that is perceived to present greater chances of payoff than it actually has within the legal limitations that games of chance must operate.
With microprocessors now ubiquitous, the computers inside modern slot machines allow manufacturers to assign a different probability to every symbol on every reel. To the player it might appear that a winning symbol was "so close", whereas in fact the probability is much lower. In the s in the U. These used a number of features to ensure the payout was controlled within the limits of the gambling legislation.
As a coin was inserted into the machine, it could go either directly into the cashbox for the benefit of the owner or into a channel that formed the payout reservoir, with the microprocessor monitoring the number of coins in this channel. The drums themselves were driven by stepper motors, controlled by the processor and with proximity sensors monitoring the position of the drums. A "look-up table" within the software allows the processor to know what symbols were being displayed on the drums to the gambler.
This allowed the system to control the level of payout by stopping the drums at positions it had determined. If the payout channel had filled up, the payout became more generous; if nearly empty, the payout became less so thus giving good control of the odds.
Video slot machines do not use mechanical reels, instead of using graphical reels on a computerized display. As there are no mechanical constraints on the design of video slot machines, games often use at least five reels, and may also use non-standard layouts. This greatly expands the number of possibilities: a machine can have 50 or more symbols on a reel, giving odds as high as million to 1 against — enough for even the largest jackpot. As there are so many combinations possible with five reels, manufacturers do not need to weight the payout symbols although some may still do so.
Instead, higher paying symbols will typically appear only once or twice on each reel, while more common symbols earning a more frequent payout will appear many times. Video slot machines usually make more extensive use of multimedia , and can feature more elaborate minigames as bonuses. Modern cabinets typically use flat-panel displays , but cabinets using larger curved screens which can provide a more immersive experience for the player are not uncommon.
Video slot machines typically encourage the player to play multiple "lines": rather than simply taking the middle of the three symbols displayed on each reel, a line could go from top left to the bottom right or any other pattern specified by the manufacturer. As each symbol is equally likely, there is no difficulty for the manufacturer in allowing the player to take as many of the possible lines on offer as desire — the long-term return to the player will be the same. The difference for the player is that the more lines they play, the more likely they are to get paid on a given spin because they are betting more.
To avoid seeming as if the player's money is simply ebbing away whereas a payout of credits on a single-line machine would be bets and the player would feel they had made a substantial win, on a line machine, it would only be five bets and not seem as significant , manufacturers commonly offer bonus games, which can return many times their bet. The player is encouraged to keep playing to reach the bonus: even if he is losing, the bonus game could allow then to win back their losses.
All modern machines are designed using pseudorandom number generators "PRNGs" , which are constantly generating a sequence of simulated random numbers, at a rate of hundreds or perhaps thousands per second. As soon as the "Play" button is pressed, the most recent random number is used to determine the result. This means that the result varies depending on exactly when the game is played. A fraction of a second earlier or later and the result would be different. It is important that the machine contains a high-quality RNG implementation.
Because all PRNGs must eventually repeat their number sequence  and, if the period is short or the PRNG is otherwise flawed, an advanced player may be able to "predict" the next result. Having access to the PRNG code and seed values, Ronald Dale Harris , a former slot machine programmer, discovered equations for specific gambling games like Keno that allowed him to predict what the next set of selected numbers would be based on the previous games played.
Most machines are designed to defeat this by generating numbers even when the machine is not being played so the player cannot tell where in the sequence they are, even if they know how the machine was programmed. This is known as the "theoretical payout percentage" or RTP, "return to player".
The minimum theoretical payout percentage varies among jurisdictions and is typically established by law or regulation. The winning patterns on slot machines — the amounts they pay and the frequencies of those payouts — are carefully selected to yield a certain fraction of the money paid to the "house" the operator of the slot machine while returning the rest to the players during play.
Within some EGM development organizations this concept is referred to simply as "par". Play now! A slot machine's theoretical payout percentage is set at the factory when the software is written. Changing the payout percentage after a slot machine has been placed on the gaming floor requires a physical swap of the software or firmware , which is usually stored on an EPROM but may be loaded onto non-volatile random access memory NVRAM or even stored on CD-ROM or DVD , depending on the capabilities of the machine and the applicable regulations.
Based on current technology, this is a time-consuming process and as such is done infrequently. Other jurisdictions, including Nevada, randomly audit slot machines to ensure that they contain only approved software. Historically, many casinos, both online and offline, have been unwilling to publish individual game RTP figures, making it impossible for the player to know whether they are playing a "loose" or a "tight" game.
Since the turn of the century some information regarding these figures has started to come into the public domain either through various casinos releasing them—primarily this applies to online casinos—or through studies by independent gambling authorities. The return to player is not the only statistic that is of interest.
The probabilities of every payout on the pay table is also critical. For example, consider a hypothetical slot machine with a dozen different values on the pay table. However, the probabilities of getting all the payouts are zero except the largest one. Also, most people would not win anything, and having entries on the paytable that have a return of zero would be deceptive. As these individual probabilities are closely guarded secrets, it is possible that the advertised machines with high return to player simply increase the probabilities of these jackpots.
The added advantage is that these large jackpots increase the excitement of the other players. This game, in its original form, is obsolete, so these specific probabilities do not apply. He only published the odds after a fan of his sent him some information provided on a slot machine that was posted on a machine in the Netherlands. The psychology of the machine design is quickly revealed. There are 13 possible payouts ranging from to 2, The payout comes every 8 plays.
The payout comes every 33 plays, whereas the payout comes every plays. Most players assume the likelihood increases proportionate to the payout. The one mid-size payout that is designed to give the player a thrill is the payout. It is programmed to occur an average of once every plays. The payout is high enough to create excitement, but not high enough that it makes it likely that the player will take their winnings and abandon the game.
In contrast the payout occurs only on average of once every 6, plays. The player who continues to feed the machine is likely to have several mid-size payouts, but unlikely to have a large payout. He quits after he is bored or has exhausted his bankroll. Despite their confidentiality, occasionally a PAR sheet is posted on a website. They have limited value to the player, because usually a machine will have 8 to 12 different possible programs with varying payouts.
In addition, slight variations of each machine e. The casino operator can choose which EPROM chip to install in any particular machine to select the payout desired. The result is that there is not really such a thing as a high payback type of machine, since every machine potentially has multiple settings. Without revealing the proprietary information, he developed a program that would allow him to determine with usually less than a dozen plays on each machine which EPROM chip was installed.
Then he did a survey of over machines in 70 different casinos in Las Vegas. He averaged the data, and assigned an average payback percentage to the machines in each casino. The resultant list was widely publicized for marketing purposes especially by the Palms casino which had the top ranking. One reason that the slot machine is so profitable to a casino is that the player must play the high house edge and high payout wagers along with the low house edge and low payout wagers. Other bets have a higher house edge, but the player is rewarded with a bigger win up to thirty times in craps.
The player can choose what kind of wager he wants to make. A slot machine does not afford such an opportunity. Theoretically, the operator could make these probabilities available, or allow the player to choose which one so that the player is free to make a choice. However, no operator has ever enacted this strategy. Different machines have different maximum payouts, but without knowing the odds of getting the jackpot, there is no rational way to differentiate.
In many markets where central monitoring and control systems are used to link machines for auditing and security purposes, usually in wide area networks of multiple venues and thousands of machines, player return must usually be changed from a central computer rather than at each machine. A range of percentages is set in the game software and selected remotely.
In , the Nevada Gaming Commission began working with Las Vegas casinos on technology that would allow the casino's management to change the game, the odds, and the payouts remotely. The change cannot be done instantaneously, but only after the selected machine has been idle for at least four minutes. After the change is made, the machine must be locked to new players for four minutes and display an on-screen message informing potential players that a change is being made.
Some varieties of slot machines can be linked together in a setup sometimes known as a "community" game. The most basic form of this setup involves progressive jackpots that are shared between the bank of machines, but may include multiplayer bonuses and other features. In some cases multiple machines are linked across multiple casinos. In these cases, the machines may be owned by the manufacturer, who is responsible for paying the jackpot.
The casinos lease the machines rather than owning them outright. Casinos in New Jersey, Nevada, and South Dakota now offer multi-state progressive jackpots, which now offer bigger jackpot pools. Mechanical slot machines and their coin acceptors were sometimes susceptible to cheating devices and other scams. One historical example involved spinning a coin with a short length of plastic wire.
The weight and size of the coin would be accepted by the machine and credits would be granted. However, the spin created by the plastic wire would cause the coin to exit through the reject chute into the payout tray.
This particular scam has become obsolete due to improvements in newer slot machines. Another obsolete method of defeating slot machines was to use a light source to confuse the optical sensor used to count coins during payout. Modern slot machines are controlled by EPROM computer chips and, in large casinos, coin acceptors have become obsolete in favor of bill acceptors. These machines and their bill acceptors are designed with advanced anti-cheating and anti-counterfeiting measures and are difficult to defraud.
Early computerized slot machines were sometimes defrauded through the use of cheating devices, such as the "slider", "monkey paw", "lightwand" and "the tongue". Malfunctioning electronic slot machines are capable of indicating jackpot winnings far in excess of those advertised.
In the United States, the public and private availability of slot machines is highly regulated by state governments. Many states have established gaming control boards to regulate the possession and use of slot machines and other form of gaming. Nevada is the only state that has no significant restrictions against slot machines both for public and private use.
In New Jersey , slot machines are only allowed in hotel casinos operated in Atlantic City. Several states Indiana , Louisiana and Missouri allow slot machines as well as any casino-style gambling only on licensed riverboats or permanently anchored barges. Since Hurricane Katrina , Mississippi has removed the requirement that casinos on the Gulf Coast operate on barges and now allows them on land along the shoreline.
Delaware allows slot machines at three horse tracks; they are regulated by the state lottery commission. In Wisconsin, bars and taverns are allowed to have up to five machines. These machines usually allow a player to either take a payout, or gamble it on a double-or-nothing "side game". The territory of Puerto Rico places significant restrictions on slot machine ownership, but the law is widely flouted and slot machines are common in bars and coffeeshops.
In regards to tribal casinos located on Native American reservations , slot machines played against the house and operating independently from a centralized computer system are classified as "Class III" gaming by the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act IGRA , and sometimes promoted as "Vegas-style" slot machines.
As a workaround, some casinos may operate slot machines as "Class II" games—a category that includes games where players play exclusively against at least one other opponent and not the house, such as bingo or any related games such as pull-tabs. In these cases, the reels are an entertainment display with a pre-determined outcome based on a centralized game played against other players.
Some historical race wagering terminals operate in a similar manner, with the machines using slots as an entertainment display for outcomes paid using the parimutuel betting system, based on results of randomly-selected, previously-held horse races with the player able to view selected details about the race and adjust their picks before playing the credit, or otherwise use an auto-bet system. Conversely, in Connecticut , Hawaii , Nebraska , South Carolina , and Tennessee , private ownership of any slot machine is completely prohibited.
The remaining states allow slot machines of a certain age typically 25—30 years or slot machines manufactured before a specific date. For a detailed list of state-by-state regulations on private slot machine ownership, see U. In essence, the term "lottery scheme" used in the code means slot machines, bingo and table games normally associated with a casino. These fall under the jurisdiction of the province or territory without reference to the federal government; in practice, all Canadian provinces operate gaming boards that oversee lotteries, casinos and video lottery terminals under their jurisdiction.
OLG piloted a classification system for slot machines at the Grand River Raceway developed by University of Waterloo professor Kevin Harrigan, as part of its PlaySmart initiative for responsible gambling. Inspired by nutrition labels on foods, they displayed metrics such as volatility and frequency of payouts.
In Australia "Poker Machines" or "pokies"  are officially termed "gaming machines". In Australia, gaming machines are a matter for state governments, so laws vary between states. Gaming machines are found in casinos approximately one in each major city , pubs and clubs in some states usually sports, social, or RSL clubs. The first Australian state to legalize this style of gambling was New South Wales , when in they were made legal in all registered clubs in the state.
There are suggestions that the proliferation of poker machines has led to increased levels of problem gambling ; however, the precise nature of this link is still open to research. Australia ranks 8th in total number of gaming machines after Japan, U. This primarily is because gaming machines have been legal in the state of New South Wales since ; over time, the number of machines has grown to 97, at December , including the Australian Capital Territory.
By way of comparison, the U. State of Nevada, which legalised gaming including slots several decades before N. This new law also banned machines with an automatic play option. All gaming machines in Victoria have an information screen accessible to the user by pressing the "i key" button, showing the game rules, paytable, return to player percentage, and the top and bottom five combinations with their odds.
These combinations are stated to be played on a minimum bet usually 1 credit per line, with 1 line or reel played, although some newer machines do not have an option to play 1 line; some machines may only allow maximum lines to be played , excluding feature wins. Western Australia has the most restrictive regulations on electronic gaming machines in general, with the Crown Perth casino resort being the only venue allowed to operate them,  and banning slot machines with spinning reels entirely.
This policy had an extensive political history, reaffirmed by the Royal Commission into Gambling: . Poker machine playing is a mindless, repetitive and insidious form of gambling which has many undesirable features. It requires no thought, no skill or social contact. The odds are never about winning. Watching people playing the machines over long periods of time, the impressionistic evidence at least is that they are addictive to many people.
Historically poker machines have been banned from Western Australia and we consider that, in the public interest, they should stay banned. While Western Australian gaming machines are similar to the other states', they do not have spinning reels. Therefore different animations are used in place of the spinning reels in order to display each game result. Independent candidate Andrew Wilkie , an anti-pokies campaigner, was elected to the Australian House of Representatives seat of Denison at the federal election.
Wilkie was one of four crossbenchers who supported the Gillard Labor government following the hung parliament result. Wilkie immediately began forging ties with Xenophon as soon as it was apparent that he was elected. During the COVID pandemic of , every establishment in the country that facilitated poker machines was shut down, in an attempt to curb the spread of the virus. Bringing Australia's usage of poker machines effectively to zero.
In Russia, "slot clubs" appeared quite late, only in Before , slot machines were only in casinos and small shops, but later slot clubs began appearing all over the country. The most popular and numerous were "Vulcan " and "Taj Mahal".
Since when gambling establishments were banned, almost all slot clubs disappeared and are found only in a specially authorized gambling zones.
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